• Fernanda Nogueira Reis Universidade Estadual de Campinas
  • Beatriz Adelle Gomes Santos Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
  • Daniel Pignatari Mahet Rodrigues Universidade Estadual de Campinas
  • Andreia Cristina Breda de Souza Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
  • Casimiro Abreu Possante de Almeida Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro



Age determination by teeth, Young adult, Forensic anthropology, Forensic dentistry


Estimating the age of young adults remains a challenge and cannot be performed with high accuracy, however, this estimate may contribute to an elucidation of expert cases. This study aims to describe and analyze the different techniques and methodologies used by Forensic Odontology to make these estimates. For this, scientific articles were analyzed from the use of "forensic anthropology" and "dental age estimation" as keywords in PUBMED. Studies published between 2003 and 2016 in English were included, as well as the revisions and studies aimed at children or other purposes were excluded. In a total of twenty-eight articles selected, the nationality, homogeneity and gender of the samples were analyzed, as well as the type of imaging tests and the different techniques used, such as: morphological, histological, biochemical or the combination between them. In addition, the use of teeth or bones and the dental group chosen to constitute the sample were evaluated. Through this search, it is concluded that the profile of global scientific study aimed at the age estimation of young adults uses homogeneous samples of both genders, using one-root and multi-root dental elements. The general design is also characterized by the morphological analysis of the sample and the use of imaging exams, preferably panoramic radiographs. Although the articles cover different nationalities, the Indian population presented the most significant expression in the present study. Under those circumstances, the selected literature reflects the reality of studies in different populations, emphasizing the need to stimulate scientific research in Brazil, since the population standards alter the efficiency of the indicators used. The improvement of current techniques is also necessary to make them less invasive, with the predominant use of CT scans, radiographs and photographs.


Solon SMN. Análise Dos Procedimentos De Estimativa Da Idade Cronológica Do Indivíduo Pela Avaliação Dentária No Instituto Médico Legal De Fortaleza. 2008;

Figueiredo JM. Comparação de métodos dentários de estimativa de idade no adulto- Aplicação a uma amostra da população portuguesa [Internet]. Universidade de Lisboa; 2008. Available from:

Deitos AR, Paulo S, Deitos AR. ALEXANDRE RAPHAEL DEITOS O uso do terceiro molar na estimativa de idade em brasileiros São Paulo 2014. 2014;

Krishan K, Kanchan T, Garg AK. Dental Evidence in Forensic Identification - An Overview, Methodology and Present Status. Open Dent J. 2015;9:250–6.

Krenzer U. Estimación de la edad osteológica en subadultos. In: Compendio de Métodos Antropológico Forenses para la reconstruccíon del perfil osteo-biológico. Primera ed. Guatemala: Centro de Análisis Forense y Ciencias Alplicadas; 2006.

Coma JMR. El diente en la antopología forense. In: Antropología Forense. Madrid: Secretaria General Tecnica, Centro de Publicaciones; 1991. p. 325–90.

Arbenz GO. Estimativa de idade pelo exame dos dentes. In: Medicina legal e Antropologia Forense. São Paulo: Atheneu; 1988. p. 269–81.

Brasil. Artigo 5º da Lei n. 10.406, de 10 de janeiro de 2002. Institui a maioridade no Código Civil. Brasília, DF, 10 jan. 2002. Disponível em: Acesso em: 30 de maio de 2017.

Bilge Y, Kedici PS, Alakoç YD, Ulküer KU, Ilkyaz YY. The identification of a dismembered human body: a multidisciplinary approach. Forensic Sci Int. 26; 137(2-3): 141- 6. Nov, 2003.

Brkic H, Milicevic M, Petrovecki M. Age estimation methods using anthropological parameters on human teeth- (A0736). Forensic Sci Int. 16;162(1-3):13-6. Oct, 2006.

Cameriere R, Ferrante L, Belcastro MG, Bonfiglioli B, Rastelli E, Cingolani M. Age estimation by pulp/tooth ratio in canin es by mesial and vestibular peri-apical X-rays. J Forensic Sci. 2007;52(5):1151–5.

Bhat VJ, Kamath GP. Age Estimation From Root Development of Mandibular Third Molars in Comparison With Skeletal Age of Wrist Joint. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2007; 28 (3): 238–41.

Meinl A, Tangl S, Pernicka E, Fenes C, Watzek G. On the applicability of secondary dentin formation to radiological age estimation in young adults. J Forensic Sci. 52(2):438-41, Mar, 2007.

González-Colmenares G, Botella-López MC, Moreno-Rueda G, Fernández-Cardenete JR. Age estimation by a dental method: A comparison of Lamendin’s and Prince & Ubelaker’s technique. J Forensic Sci. 2007;52(5):1156–60.

Griffin RC, Moody H, Penkman KEH, Collins MJ. The application of amino acid racemization in the acid soluble fraction of enamel to the estimation of the age of human teeth. Forensic Sci Int. 2008;175(1):11–6.

Ubelaker DH, Parra RC. Application of three dental methods of adult age estimation from intact single rooted teeth to a Peruvian sample. J Forensic Sci. 2008;53(3):608–11.

Rai B, Krishan K, Kaur J, Anand SC. Technical note: Age estimation from mandible by lateral cephalogram: a preliminary study. J Forensic Odontostomatol. 1;26(1):24-8, Jun, 2008.

Cameriere R, Cunha E, Sassaroli E, Nuzzolese E, Ferrante L. Age estimation by pulp/tooth area ratio in canines: Study of a Portuguese sample to test Cameriere’s method. Forensic Sci Int. 2009;193(1–3):1–6.

Lee S, Lee UY, Han SH, Lee SS. Forensic odontological examination of a 1500 year-old human remain in ancient Korea (Gaya). J Forensic Odontostomatol. 2011;29(2):8–13.

Vodanović M, Dumančić J, Galić I, Savić pavičin I, Petrovečki M, Cameriere R, et al. Age estimation in archaeological skeletal remains: evaluation of four non-destructive age calculation methods. J Forensic Odontostomatol. 1;29(2):14-21, Dec, 2011.

Johan NA, Khamis MF, Abdul Jamal NS, Ahmad B, Mahanani ES. The variability of lower third molar development in Northeast Malaysian population with application to age estimation. J Forensic Odontostomatol. 2012;30(1):45–54.

Gocha TP, Schutkowski H. Tooth Cementum Annulation for Estimation of Age-at-Death in Thermally Altered Remains. J Forensic Sci. 2013;58 (SUPPL. 1):1–5.

Gibelli D, De Angelis D, Rossetti F, Cappella A, Frustaci M, Magli F, et al. Thermal Modifications of Root Transparency and Implications for Aging: A Pilot Study. J Forensic Sci. 2014;59(1):219–23.

Ramsthaler F, Kettner M, Verhoff MA. Validity and reliability of dental age estimation of teeth root translucency based on digital luminance determination. Int J Legal Med. 2014;128(1):171–6.

Cameriere R, Santoro V, Roca R, Lozito P, Introna F, Cingolani M, et al. Assessment of legal adult age of 18 by measurement of open apices of the third molars: Study on the Albanian sample. Forensic Sci Int. 2014;245:205.e1-205.e5.

Galić I, Lauc T, Brkić H, Vodanović M, Galić E, Biazevic MG, et al. Cameriere's third molar maturity index in assessing age of majority. Forensic Sci Int. 252:191.e1-5, Jul, 2015.

Colard T, Bertrand B, Naji S, Delannoy Y, Bécart A. Toward the adoption of cementochronology in forensic context. Int J Legal Med. 2015;

Deitos AR, Costa C, Michel-Crosato E, Galić I, Cameriere R, Biazevic MGH. Age estimation among Brazilians: Younger or older than 18? J Forensic Leg Med. 2015;33:111–5.

Ge ZP, Ma RH, Li G, Zhang JZ, Ma XC. Age estimation based on pulp chamber volume of first molars from cone-beam computed tomography images. Forensic Sci Int. 253:133. e1-7, Aug, 2015.

Mallar KB, Girish HC, Murgod S, Kumar BY. Age estimation using annulations in root cementum of human teeth: A comparison between longitudinal and cross sections. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 19(3):396-404, Sep-Dec, 2015.

Zelic K, Galic I, Nedeljkovic N, Jakovljevic A, Milosevic O, Djuric M, et al. Accuracy of Cameriere’s third molar maturity index in assessing legal adulthood on Serbian population. Forensic Sci Int. 2016;259:127–32.

Cavrić J, Galić I, Vodanović M, Brkić H, Gregov J, Viva S, et al. Third molar maturity index (I3M) for assessing age of majority in a black African population in Botswana. Int J Legal Med. Mar, 2016.

Rajpal PS, Krishnamurthy V, Pagare SS, Sachdev GD. Age estimation using intraoral periapical radiographs. J Forensic Dent Sci. 8(1): 56–57, Jan-Apr, 2016.

Badar SB, Ghafoor R, Khan FR, Hameed MH. Age estimation of a sample of Pakistani population using Coronal Pulp Cavity Index in molars and premolars on Orthopantomogram. J Pak Med Assoc. 2016 Oct;66 (Suppl 3)(10):S39-S41.

De Luca S, Aguilar L, Rivera M, Palacio LA, Riccomi G, Bestetti F, et al. Accuracy of cut-off value by measurement of third molar index: Study of a Colombian sample. Forensic Sci Int. 2016;261: 160.e1-5.

Lefèvre T, Chariot P, Chauvin P. Multivariate methods for the analysis of complex and big data in forensic sciences. Application to age estimation in living persons. Forensic Sci Int. 2016 Sep;266:581.e1-9.






Artigo original